ืžืฉืจื“ื™ ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื
ื”ื›ืœ ืขืœ ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ

ืจืื™ื™ืช ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ โ€“ ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช

ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืžืžืœืื™ื ืชืคืงื™ื“ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ืžืชืŸ ืชืžื™ื›ื” ืœืขืกืงื™ื ื•ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืœ ื”ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง, ืžืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ ืžื™ืกื™ื ื•ืขื“ ืœืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ ืขืชื™ื“ื™, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื”ืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืฉื’ืฉื’ ื•ืœืฆืžื•ื—.

ืื ืืชื ืžื ื”ืœื™ื ืขืกืง ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœืื™ืฉ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ืฉื™ื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื›ืกืคื™ื ืฉืœื›ื, ืฉื›ื™ืจืช ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื—ืœื˜ื” ื ื‘ื•ื ื”. ื›ืžื ื”ืœื™ื, ืืชื ืžืชืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืขื ื ื•ืฉืื™ ืœื™ื‘ื” ืขืกืงื™ื™ื ืœื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื, ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืืช ื”ื ื•ืฉื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ืคืงื™ื“ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืžื•ืžื—ื”. ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉืจื›ืฉ ื”ืฉื›ืœื” ืžืชืื™ืžื” (ืœืžืฉืœ, ื‘ืžืกื’ืจืช ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ ื›ืœื›ืœื” +ย ื”ืกืžื›ื” ืœืจืื™ื™ืช ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ), ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืกืคืง ืืช ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ื“ืจืฉืช ืœื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ืื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™.

ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ืขืจื™ืš ืืช ื”ืชืจื•ืžื” ืฉืœ ืจื•ืื” ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืœื”ืฆืœื—ืช ื”ืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื, ื”ื ื” ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœ ืžืงืฆื•ืข ื–ื”, ื•ื ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื”ื‘ื ืช ืชืคืงื™ื“ื•.

ืžื” ืชืคืงื™ื“ื• ืฉืœ ืจื•ืื” ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ?

ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขืœ ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ืื•ืช, ืฉืงื™ื‘ืœ ื”ืกืžื›ื” ืœื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื ื™ืชื•ื—ื™ื ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ื•ืชื—ื–ื•ืง ื›ืกืคื™ ื”ืขืกืง. ื—ืœืง ืžื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ืฉืžืกืคืงื™ื ืจื•ืื™ ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื:

  • ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ื”ื ื”ืœืช ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช
  • ื”ืชื ื”ืœื•ืช ืžื•ืœ ื”ื‘ื ืง
  • ื”ื›ื ืช ื“ื•ื—ื•ืช ืžืก
  • ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืคื™ื ื ืกื™, ื ื™ืชื•ื— ื ืชื•ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืชืงืฆื™ื‘

ื—ื™ืกื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื•ื‘ื›ืกืฃ ืฉืœื›ื

ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ืฉื•ื›ืจื™ื ืืช ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ื˜ืคืœ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ืื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง, ืืชื ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ื ืžื”ื˜ื™ืคื•ืœ ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ื›ื•ืœ ื”ื ื•ืฉืื™ื ื”ืืœื”, ื•ื ื”ื ื™ื ื‘ื• ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื’ื ืžื—ื™ืกื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื•ื‘ื›ืกืฃ.

ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื›ื•ืœ, ื›ื‘ืขืœื™ ืขืกืง, ืžื•ื˜ืœื•ืช ืขืœื™ื›ื ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืœืœื™ื‘ืช ื”ืขืกืง ื•ืžื™ื•ืขื“ื•ืช ืœื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ืชืจื—ื‘ื•ืช ื•ืฆืžื™ื—ื”. ืžื” ื”ืคืœื ืฉืงืฉื” ืœื›ื ืœื”ืชืคื ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื˜ืคืœ ื’ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ืื™, ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืื ื–ื” ืœื ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื?

ืจื•ืื” ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื™ื™ืงื— ืขืœ ืขืฆืžื• ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืœื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ื™ื•ืžื™ื•ืžื™, ื›ืš ืฉื”ืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ืคื•ืš ืœืคืจื•ื“ื•ืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื•ืืชื ืชื™ื”ื ื• ืžืจื•ื•ื—ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ืœื›ื™ื ื•ื’ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžืฉืžืขื•ืชื™.

ื”ืคื—ืชืช ื—ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืก ืฉืœื›ื

ื”ืคื—ืชืช ื—ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืก ื”ื™ื ื—ื™ื•ื ื™ืช ืœื›ื•ืœ ืขืกืง ืฆื•ืžื—. ื”ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืฉืชืฆืœื™ื—ื• ืœื—ืกื•ืš ื›ืกืคื™ื ืชื•ืš ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื™ื ืœืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ ื”ืžื™ืกื™ื ืฉืœื›ื.

ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืžื ื•ืกื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื’ื ืœื”ืฆื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื, ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉื ืงืœืขืชื ืœืงืฉื™ื™ื ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ืœืžื™ืกื•ื™. ื”ื•ื ื™ื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื ื“ืจืฉื•ืช ื‘ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืžื™ื˜ื‘ื™ ื•ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื—ืกื•ืš ืžื›ื ืฆืจื•ืช ืืคืฉืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื ืœื•ื•ืช ืœืืชื’ืจื™ื ื”ืžืืคื™ื™ื ื™ื ืืช ื”ื“ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืฉื ื”.

ืžื ื™ืขืช ื”ื™ืงืœืขื•ืช ืœื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืžืก

ืื ืœื ืชื™ืงื—ื• ื‘ืจืฆื™ื ื•ืช ืืช ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ ื”ืžืก ืฉืœื›ื, ืืชื ื—ื•ืฉืคื™ื ืืช ืขืฆืžื›ื ืœืขื•ื ืฉื™ื ื—ืžื•ืจื™ื, ืฉืขืœื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื™ืงืจื™ื ืžืื•ื“ ืœืขืกืง ืคืขื™ืœ.

ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืžื•ื“ืขื™ื ืœื›ื•ืœ ื”ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื”ื—ืกืจื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืขืกืง ืฆื•ืžื—. ื”ื ืžืฆื•ื™ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื“ืข ื”ืงืฉื•ืจ ืœื—ื‘ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืก. ืœื›ืŸ, ื”ื ื™ื ืงื˜ื• ื‘ืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ื”ืžืชืื™ืžื•ืช, ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ื›ื ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื“ื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ื”ื ื“ืจืฉื™ื ื•ื”ื’ืฉืชื ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืฉืงื‘ืข ื”ื—ื•ืง.

ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืฉืฆืฆื•ืช ื‘ืจื’ืข ื”ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœืืชื’ืจ ื›ืœ ื—ื‘ืจื”, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืขืกืงืช ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืžื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื” ืฉื”ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื™ืขืฉื” ืžืœื›ืชื—ื™ืœื” ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื ื›ื•ืŸ, ื›ืš ืฉืœื ื™ื”ื™ื” ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืชื™ืงื•ื ื™ื ื‘ื“ืงื” ื”ืชืฉืขื™ื.

ืจื•ืื” ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื™ืขื–ื•ืจ ื’ื ืœื”ืฆืžื™ื— ืืช ื”ืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื, ืชื•ืš ืžื•ื“ืขื•ืช ืœืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื”ืžืชืจื—ืฉื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ ื•ื‘ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืชืงืฆื™ื‘, ื›ื›ื•ืœ ืฉื”ืขืกืง ื’ื“ืœ ื•ืฆื•ืžื—.

ื”ืขืกืงืช ืจื•ืื” ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืงืจื™ื˜ื™ืช ืœืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื, ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื™ืชืžื•ืš ื‘ืžื‘ื ื” ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง, ืชื•ืš ืฉืžื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ืฉืืžื•ืจื™ื ืœื”ืชืื™ื ืœืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ื”ื”ืชืจื—ื‘ื•ืช ืžื•ื›ื•ื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง.

ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืขืกืงื™ื ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืžื—ื–ื™ืงื™ื ืžื—ืœืงื” ืœื”ื ื”ืœืช ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฉืœื”ื, ื•ืžืขืกื™ืงื™ื ืžืกืคืจ ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืกืคืงื™ื ืœื”ื ืขืžื•ื“ ืฉื“ืจื” ืื™ืชืŸ ืฉืžื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื›ื•ืœ ื”ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง.

ืžื ื™ืขืช ื—ืฉืฉ ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœืžื™ืกื™ื

ื‘ืขืœื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืชืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืขื ืœื—ืฆื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื”ื ื•ื’ืขื™ื ืœื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืžืก, ื•ืืœื” ืžืชื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ืขืกืง ื—ืกืจื™ื ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื•ื”ื ื”ืœื™ื ื”ื ื›ื•ื ื™ื.

ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืžื ื•ืกื™ื ื‘ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืžื•ืœ ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืก, ื•ืžืกืคืงื™ื ืœืขืกืงื™ื ืืช ื”ื™ื“ืข ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ ืœื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ื”ืžืฉื™ืžื” ื‘ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื ืžืืžืฅ ื•ืชื•ืš ืชืฉื•ืžืช ืœื‘ ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืœืคืจื˜ื™ื.

ื›ืืฉืจ ืืชื ืฉื•ื›ืจื™ื ืืช ืจื•ืื” ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืชืื™ื, ืืชื ืคื˜ื•ืจื™ื ืžื“ืื’ื” ืœื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื•ืช ืœืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ ื”ืžื™ืกื™ื.

ื”ืกืคืงืช ืชื•ื‘ื ื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช

ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉืžืชืžื—ื™ื ื‘ืžืฉื™ืžื•ืช ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ื•ืช (ื›ืžื• ื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ืขื ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืžืก), ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื ื‘ืขืœื™ ื™ื“ืข ื›ืœืœื™ ื”ื ื•ื’ืข ืœืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื, ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืกืคืง ืœื›ื ืชื•ื‘ื ื•ืช ืฉื™ื—ื–ื™ืจื• ืืชื›ื ืœื“ืจืš ื”ื™ืฉืจ, ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉื”ืชื—ืœืชื ืœืกื˜ื•ืช ืœื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืœื ื ื›ื•ืŸ. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื ืฉืžืฆื™ืขื™ื ืจื•ืื™ ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ, ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ืชืื™ื ืœืžื˜ืจื•ืช ื•ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืง ืฉืœื›ื.ย 

ืจื•ืื” ื”ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืกืคืง ืœื›ื ืชื•ื‘ื ื•ืช ื™ืงืจื•ืช ืขืจืš, ืฉื™ื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ื›ื™ ื”ืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ืขืกืงื™ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืžืขื ื” ืžืœื, ื’ื ื›ืฉื”ืชืจื—ื™ืฉื™ื ืžืฉืชื ื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื•ืช ืœื‘ืงืจื™ื, ื›ื›ื•ืœ ืฉื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืขืกืงื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชื ื•ืช ืขื ื”ื–ืžืŸ.

ืžืฉืจื“ ืจื•ืื™ ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื‘ืชืœ ืื‘ื™ื‘

ืžื™ื“ืข ืœื™ืฆื™ืจืช ืงืฉืจ

ื“ื™ืœื•ื’ ืœืชื•ื›ืŸ